Early elevation of serum MMP-3 and MMP-12 predicts protection from World Trade Center-lung injury in New York City firefighters: a nested case-control study.
Kwon S; Weiden MD; Echevarria GC; Comfort AL; Naveed B; Prezant DJ; Rom WN; Nolan A
PLoS One 2013 Oct; 8(10):e76099
Objective: After 9/11/2001, some Fire Department of New York (FDNY) workers had excessive lung function decline. We hypothesized that early serum matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) expression predicts World Trade Center-Lung Injury (WTCLI) years later. Methods: This is a nested case-control analysis of never-smoking male firefighters with normal pre-exposure Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1) who had serum drawn up to 155 days post 9/11/2001. Serum MMP-1, 2,3,7,8, 9, 12 and 13 were measured. Cases of WTC-LI (N = 70) were defined as having an FEV1 one standard deviation below the mean (FEV1 ≤ 77%) at subspecialty pulmonary evaluation (SPE) which was performed 32 months (IQR 21-53) post-9/11. Controls (N = 123) were randomly selected. We modeled MMP's ability as a predictor of cases status with logistic regression adjusted for time to blood draw, exposure intensity, weight gain and pre-9/11 FEV1. Results: Each log-increase in MMP-3 and MMP-12 showed reduced odds of developing WTC-LI by 73% and 54% respectively. MMP-3 and MMP-12 consistently clustered together in cases, controls, and the cohort. Increasing time to blood draw significantly and independently increased the risk of WTC-LI. Conclusions: Elevated serum levels of MMP-3 and MMP-12 reduce the risk of developing WTC-LI. At any level of MMP-3 or 12, increased time to blood draw is associated with a diminished protective effect.
Medical-monitoring; Respiratory-system-disorders; Emergency-responders; Pulmonary-system-disorders; Lung-disorders; Dust-exposure; Metalloproteins; Men; Fire-fighters; Blood-serum; Blood-samples; Mathematical-models; Biomarkers; Risk-analysis; Risk-factors; Blood-analysis; Blood-sampling
Anna Nolan, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep, New York University, School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA
Cooperative-Agreement-Number-U10-OH-008243; Cooperative-Agreement-Number-U10-OH-008242; M112013
Public Library of Science One
New York City Fire Department