NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search

Early elevation of serum MMP-3 and MMP-12 predicts protection from World Trade Center-lung injury in New York City firefighters: a nested case-control study.

Kwon S; Weiden MD; Echevarria GC; Comfort AL; Naveed B; Prezant DJ; Rom WN; Nolan A
PLoS One 2013 Oct; 8(10):e76099
Objective: After 9/11/2001, some Fire Department of New York (FDNY) workers had excessive lung function decline. We hypothesized that early serum matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) expression predicts World Trade Center-Lung Injury (WTCLI) years later. Methods: This is a nested case-control analysis of never-smoking male firefighters with normal pre-exposure Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1) who had serum drawn up to 155 days post 9/11/2001. Serum MMP-1, 2,3,7,8, 9, 12 and 13 were measured. Cases of WTC-LI (N = 70) were defined as having an FEV1 one standard deviation below the mean (FEV1 ≤ 77%) at subspecialty pulmonary evaluation (SPE) which was performed 32 months (IQR 21-53) post-9/11. Controls (N = 123) were randomly selected. We modeled MMP's ability as a predictor of cases status with logistic regression adjusted for time to blood draw, exposure intensity, weight gain and pre-9/11 FEV1. Results: Each log-increase in MMP-3 and MMP-12 showed reduced odds of developing WTC-LI by 73% and 54% respectively. MMP-3 and MMP-12 consistently clustered together in cases, controls, and the cohort. Increasing time to blood draw significantly and independently increased the risk of WTC-LI. Conclusions: Elevated serum levels of MMP-3 and MMP-12 reduce the risk of developing WTC-LI. At any level of MMP-3 or 12, increased time to blood draw is associated with a diminished protective effect.
Medical-monitoring; Respiratory-system-disorders; Emergency-responders; Pulmonary-system-disorders; Lung-disorders; Dust-exposure; Metalloproteins; Men; Fire-fighters; Blood-serum; Blood-samples; Mathematical-models; Biomarkers; Risk-analysis; Risk-factors; Blood-analysis; Blood-sampling
Anna Nolan, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep, New York University, School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA
Publication Date
Document Type
Journal Article
Email Address
Funding Type
Cooperative Agreement
Fiscal Year
Identifying No.
Cooperative-Agreement-Number-U10-OH-008243; Cooperative-Agreement-Number-U10-OH-008242; M112013
Issue of Publication
Source Name
Public Library of Science One
Performing Organization
New York City Fire Department
Page last reviewed: July 9, 2021
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division