Maternal periconceptional occupational exposure to pesticides and selected musculoskeletal birth defects.
Kielb C; Lin S; Herdt-Losavio M; Bell E; Chapman B; Rocheleau CM; Lawson C; Waters M; Stewart P; Olney RS; Romitti PA; Cao Y; Druschel C; the National Birth Defects Prevention Study
Int J Hyg Environ Health 2014 Mar; 217(2-3):248-254
This population-based U.S. study investigated the association between major musculoskeletal malfor-mations and periconceptional maternal occupational pesticide exposure for a wide range of occupations.We conducted a multi-site case-control analysis using data from the National Birth Defects Preven-tion Study among employed women with due dates from October 1, 1997 through December 31, 2002.Cases included 871 live-born, stillborn, or electively terminated fetuses with isolated craniosynostosis,gastroschisis, diaphragmatic hernia, or transverse limb deficiencies. Controls included 2857 live-borninfants without major malformations. Using self-reported maternal occupational information, an indus-trial hygienist used a job-exposure matrix and expert opinion to evaluate the potential for exposure toinsecticides, herbicides or fungicides for each job held during one month pre-conception through threemonths post-conception. Exposures analyzed included any exposure (yes/no) to pesticides, to insecticidesonly, to both insecticides and herbicides (I + H) and to insecticides, herbicides and fungicides (I + H + F). Weused logistic regression to evaluate the association between exposures and defects, controlling for infantand maternal risk factors. Occupational exposure to I + H + F was associated with gastroschisis amonginfants of women aged 20 years or older (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.88; 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.16-3.05), but not for women under age 20 (aOR = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.20-1.16). We found no significantassociations for the other defects. Additional research is needed to validate these findings in a separatepopulation.
Exposure-levels; Risk-factors; Birth-defects; Pesticides; Pesticides-and-agricultural-chemicals; Humans; Women; Musculoskeletal-system; Musculoskeletal-system-disorders; Etiology; Pregnancy; Prenatal-exposure;
Author Keywords: Pesticides; Maternal occupational exposure; Craniosynostosis; Gastroschisis; Diaphragmatic hernia; Transverse limb deficiencies
Christine Kielb, NYS Department of Health, Corning Tower Room 1203,Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12237
International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health