Biodiesel versus diesel exposure: enhanced pulmonary inflammation, oxidative stress, and differential morphological changes in the mouse lung.
Yanamala N; Hatfield MK; Farcas MT; Schwegler-Berry D; Hummer JA; Shurin MR; Birch ME; Gutkin DW; Kisin E; Kagan VE; Bugarski AD; Shvedova AA
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2013 Oct; 272(2):373-383
The use of biodiesel (BD) or its blends with petroleum diesel (D) is considered to be a viable approach to reduce occupational and environmental exposures to particulate matter (PM). Due to its lower particulate mass emissions compared to D, use of BD is thought to alleviate adverse health effects. Considering BD fuel is mainly composed of unsaturated fatty acids, we hypothesize that BD exhaust particles could induce pronounced adverse outcomes, due to their ability to readily oxidize. The main objective of this study was to compare the effects of particles generated by engine fueled with neat BD and neat petroleum-based D. Biomarkers of tissue damage and inflammation were significantly elevated in lungs of mice exposed to BD particulates. Additionally, BD particulates caused a significant accumulation of oxidatively modified proteins and an increase in 4-hydroxynonenal. The up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines/growth factors was higher in lungs upon BD particulate exposure. Histological evaluation of lung sections indicated presence of lymphocytic infiltrate and impaired clearance with prolonged retention of BD particulate in pigment laden macrophages. Taken together, these results clearly indicate that BD exhaust particles could exert more toxic effects compared to D.
Petroleum; Diesel-engines; Diesel-emissions; Diesel-exhausts; Particulates; Health-hazards; Oxidative-metabolism; Biomarkers; Animals; Laboratory-animals; Lung;
Author Keywords: Aspiration exposure; Cytokine panel; Pulmonary toxicity; Biodiesel particle retention; Inflammation; Lipid droplets
Anna A. Shvedova , Pathology and Physiology Research Branch (MS-2015), 1095 Willowdale Road, Morgantown, WV 26505
Mining; Manufacturing; Public Safety
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
University of Pittsburgh at Pittsburgh