Maternal occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and risk of selected birth defects.
Langlois-PH; Hoyt-AT; Lupo-PJ; Lawson-CC; Desrosiers-TA; Shaw-GM; Romitti-PA; Symanski-E; Reefhuis-J; Malik-S
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2013 May; 97(5):329
This series of recently published studies evaluated whether there is an association between maternal occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and various birth defects. Methods: Data were analyzed from 1997-2002 deliveries in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large population based case-control study in the US. Case groups included neural tube defects (NTDs), oral clefts, heart defects, and gastroschisis. Controls were live births without birth defects. Maternal interviews yielded information on jobs held in the month before through three months after conception. Three industrial hygienists blinded to case/ control status assessed occupational exposure to PAHs. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Results: Maternal occupational PAH exposure was not common, occurring in roughly 3.5% of the control mothers. After adjusting for confounders, the OR for cleft lip with or without cleft palate was 1.47 (95% CI 1.02, 2.12) with a significant adjusted exposure-response relationship (ptrend = 0.02). There were no statistically significant associations with any of the congenital heart defects examined. Results for NTDs and gastroschisis were most evident in certain population subgroups. Among women who were normal weight or underweight, the adjusted OR for spina bifida in offspring was 2.59 (95% CI 1.32, 5.07). Mothers who were > 20 years old had an adjusted OR of 2.53 for gastroschisis (95% CI 1.27, 5.04). Conclusion: Maternal occupational exposure to PAHs may be associated with increased risk of cleft lip with or without cleft palate in offspring. Occupational PAH exposure was also associated with risk of spina bifida among offspring of lower weight mothers and with gastroschisis among offspring of mothers who were at least 20 years old.
Birth-defects; Hydrocarbons; Exposure-levels; Risk-factors; Pregnancy; Analytical-processes; Statistical-analysis; Humans; Women; Polycyclic-hydrocarbons; Teratology
Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology
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