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Characteristics and magnitude of acute pesticide-related illnesses and injuries associated with pyrethrin and pyrethroid exposures-11 states, 2000-2008.
Hudson NL; Kasner EJ; Beckman J; Mehler L; Schwartz A; Higgins S; Bonnar-Prado J; Lackovic M; Mulay P; Mitchell Y; Larios L; Walker R; Waltz J; Moraga-McHaley S; Roisman R; Calvert GM
Am J Ind Med 2014 Jan; 57(1):15-30
Background: Excluding disinfectants, pyrethrins and pyrethroids are the pesticides used most commonly in and around homes. Respiratory effects and paresthesia are among the concerns about pyrethrin/pyrethroid exposures. Methods: Acute pesticide-related illness/injury cases were identified from the Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks-Pesticides Program and the California Department of Pesticide Regulation from 2000-2008. Characteristics and incidence rates were determined for acute pyrethrin/pyrethroid-related illness/injury cases. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine odds of respiratory and dermal symptoms in persons with illness/injury following pyrethrin/pyrethroid exposure compared to persons with illness/injury following exposure to other pesticides. Results: A total of 4,974 cases of acute pyrethrin/pyrethroid-related illness were identified. Incidence rates increased over time, reaching 8 cases/million population in 2008. The majority of cases were low severity (85%) and 34% were work-related. Respiratory effects were the most common symptoms reported (48%). Risk of acute respiratory effects were significantly elevated among persons exposed only to pyrethrins (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.79; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.49-2.16), only to pyrethroids (aOR 1.99 95% CI: 1.77-2.24), to a mixture of pyrethroids (aOR 2.36; 95% CI: 1.99-2.81) or to a mixture containing both pyrethrins and pyrethroids (aOR 2.99; 95% CI: 2.33-3.84) compared to those with illness arising from exposure to other pesticides. The most common factors contributing to pyrethrin/pyrethroid-related illness included exposure from spills/splashes, improper storage, and failure to evacuate during pesticide application. Conclusions: The magnitude of acute pyrethrin/pyrethroid-related illness/injury is relatively low but is increasing. As such, additional measures to prevent them are needed.
Pesticides; Pesticides-and-agricultural-chemicals; Exposure-levels; Risk-factors; Respiratory-irritants; Respiratory-system-disorders; Inhalants; Injuries; Analytical-processes; Skin-exposure; Pulmonary-system; Pulmonary-system-disorders; Pulmonary-disorders; Epidemiology; Statistical-analysis; Toxins; Toxic-effects; Workers; Surveillance-programs; Author Keywords: pyrethrin; pyrethroid; surveillance; pesticide; illness
Geoffrey M.Calvert, MD, MPH, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, R-17, Cincinnati, OH 45226
Cooperative-Agreement-Number-U60-OH-008473; Cooperative-Agreement-Number-U60-OH-008466; Cooperative-Agreement-Number-U60-OH-008474; Cooperative-Agreement-Number-U60-OH-008468; Cooperative-Agreement-Number-U60-OH-008487; Cooperative-Agreement-Number-U60-OH-008470; Cooperative-Agreement-Number-U60-OH-009857; B20130801
Issue of Publication
Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing
American Journal of Industrial Medicine
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Texas State Department of Health Services
Page last reviewed: December 18, 2020
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division