Specificity of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) toward oxidized phosphatidylserines: liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry characterization of products and computer modeling of interactions.
Tyurin VA; Yanamala N; Tyurina YY; Klein-Seetharaman J; Macphee CH; Kagan VE
Biochemistry 2012 Dec; 51(48):9736-9750
Ca(2+)-independent lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)) is a member of the phospholipase A(2) superfamily with a distinguishing characteristic of high specificity for oxidatively modified sn-2 fatty acid residues in phospholipids that has been especially well characterized for peroxidized species of phosphatidylcholines (PC). The ability of Lp-PLA(2) to hydrolyze peroxidized species of phosphatidylserine (PS), acting as a recognition signal for clearance of apoptotic cells by professional phagocytes, as well as the products of the reaction has not been investigated. We performed liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry-based structural characterization of oxygenated, hydrolyzed molecular species of PS-containing linoleic acid in either the sn-2 position (C(18:0)/C(18:2)) or in both sn-1 and sn-2 positions (C(18:2)/C(18:2)), formed in the cytochrome c- and H(2)O(2)-driven enzymatic oxidation reaction. Cytochrome c has been chosen as a catalyst of peroxidation reactions because of its likely involvement in PS oxidation in apoptotic cells. We found that Lp-PLA(2) catalyzed the hydrolysis of both nontruncated and truncated (oxidatively fragmented) species of oxidized PS species, albeit with different efficiencies, and performed detailed characterization of the major reaction products: oxygenated derivatives of linoleic acid as well as nonoxygenated and oxygenated species of lyso-PS. Among linoleic acid products, derivatives oxygenated at the C(9) position, including 9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (9-HODE), a potent ligand of G protein-coupled receptor G2A, were the most abundant. Computer modeling of interactions of Lp-PLA(2) with different PS-oxidized species indicated that they are able to bind in the proximity (<5 Angstroms) of Ser273 and His351 of the catalytic triad. For 9-hydroxy and 9-hydroperoxy derivatives of oxidized PS, the sn-2 ester bond was positioned very close (<3 Angstroms) to the Ser273 residue, a nucleophile directly attacking the sn-2 bond, thus favoring the hydrolysis reaction. We suggest that oxidatively modified free fatty acids and lyso-PS species generated by Lp-PLA(2) may represent important signals facilitating and regulating the execution of apoptotic and phagocytosis programs essential for the control of inflammation.
Proteins; Fatty-acids; Liquid-chromatography; Mass-spectrometry; Molecular-structure; Metabolism
Vladimir A. Tyruin, Center for Free Radical and Antioxidant Health, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, and Department of Structural Biology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260
University of Pittsburgh at Pittsburgh