Genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of cobalt-, nickel- and copper-based nanoparticles (Review).
Magaye-R; Zhao-J; Bowman-L; Ding-M
Exp Ther Med 2012 Oct; 4(4):551-561
The nanotechnology industry has matured and expanded at a rapid pace in the last decade, leading to the research and development of nanomaterials with enormous potential. The largest source of these nanomaterials is the transitional metals. It has been revealed that numerous properties of these nano-sized elements are not present in their bulk states. The nano size of these particles means they are easily transported into biological systems, thus, raising the question of their effects on the susceptible systems. Although advances have been made and insights have been gained on the effect of transitional metals on susceptible biological systems, there still is much ground to be covered, particularly with respect to our knowledge on the genotoxic and carcinogenic effects. Therefore, this review intends to summarize the current knowledge on the genotoxic and carcinogenic potential of cobalt-, nickel- and copper-based nanoparticles indicated in in vitro and in vivo mammalian studies. In the present review, we briefly state the sources, use and exposure routes of these nanoparticles and summarize the current literature findings on their in vivo and in vitro genotoxic and carcinogenic effects. Due to the increasing evidence of their role in carcinogenicity, we have also included studies that have reported epigenetic factors, such as abnormal apoptosis, enhanced oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory effects involving these nanoparticles.
Nanotechnology; Biological-systems; Transition-metals; Genotoxic-effects; Carcinogens; Cobalt-compounds; Nickel-compounds; Copper-compounds; Exposure-levels; Genotoxicity;
Author Keywords: genotoxicity; carcinogenicity; nanoparticles; cobalt; nickel; copper;
Professor Jinshun Zhao, Department of Preventive Medicine of the Medical School, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Pathological and Physiological Technology Ningbo University, 818 Fenghua Road, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211, P.R. China
7440-48-4; 7440-02-0; 7440-50-8
Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine