Attfield-M; Castranova-V; Kuempel-E; Wagner-G
Patty's toxicology, 6th edition. Bingham E, Cohrssen B, Patty FA, eds. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2012 Mar; 5:301-324
Coal is an organic, combustible, rock-like natural substance that occurs in various forms from hard and brittle anthracite to soft and friable lignite. Coal is sometimes classified into two types: hard coal and soft coal. These terms do not, however, have a standardized meaning. One definition calls anthracite hard coal and places all other coal types in the soft coal category. A more common convention is that of Speight, in which anthracite and bituminous coals are termed hard coal and lignite and brown coal are classified as soft coal. Research on the health effects of coal has been heavily concentrated on the more common anthracite and bituminous types. There, the results have shown more of a toxicological gradient across coal types rather than any clearcut divisions between types. Little research has been undertaken on lignite and other brown coals. This has prohibited drawing firm conclusions on its toxicity relative to the harder coal types. This lack of any obvious demarcation has led us to report on overall patterns of effect rather than to provide separate presentations by coal type. Where data are available, we draw attention to any findings especially relevant to any particular coal type.
Minerals; Organic-compounds; Coal-mining; Coal-dust; Coal-processing; Respiratory-system-disorders; Pulmonary-system-disorders; Toxic-effects; Health-hazards; Surveillance;
Author Keywords: anthracite; biomarkers; coal burning; coal workers' pneumoconiosis; emphysema; International Labour Organization system
Bingham-E; Cohrssen-B; Patty-FA
Patty's toxicology, 6th edition