A model for occupational exposure to metalworking fluids in smallsized machine shops.
American Industrial Hygiene Conference and Exposition, May 20-25, 2000, Orlando, Florida. Fairfax, VA: American Industrial Hygiene Association, 2000 May; :80
Recent epidemiologic studies have reported elevated respiratory symptoms, dermatitis, and cancer among workers exposed to metalworking fluids (MWFs). In an effort to assess the extent to which workplace factors might determine occupational exposure to MWFs, aerosol measurements from 866 machinists in 79 metalworking shops representing 13 different industries were used to develop a linear regression model relating MWF concentration and workplace factors. Workplace factors included type of machining operation and industry, predominant type of MWF used in the shop and method of delivery, shop housekeeping, and number and mean age of metalworking machines in the shop. The model also included terms for environmental factors such as outside temperature and the interaction between operation and MWF type. In order to investigate the impact of individual workplace factors on MWF concentrations, a baseline workstation was defined in the model and concentrations expected under various conditions were estimated for comparison with those expected from the baseline. A MWF concentration of 0.40 mg/m3 was estimated from the model for a baseline workstation, which was defined as a machine using straight oil (i.e., 60%-100% mineral oil without water) applied by flooding in a machine screw shop having good housekeeping. Estimated baseline concentrations, for example, increased from 0.40 mg/m3 in shops with good housekeeping to 0.85 mg/m3 in shops with poorer housekeeping. Estimated exposures from grinding operations decreased from 0.80 mg/m3 if straight oils were used to 0.3 mg/m3 if semi-synthetic fluids were used. Results from such comparisons may be useful in determining industry needs for further evaluation and control of MWF exposures.
Exposure-assessment; Exposure-levels; Analytical-processes; Epidemiology; Aerosols; Metals; Metalworking; Metalworking-fluids; Metalworking-industry; Small-businesses; Cancer; Dermatitis; Skin-exposure; Skin-irritants; Skin-sensitivity; Respiratory-irritants; Respiratory-system-disorders; Pulmonary-system-disorders; Lung-disorders; Lung-irritants; Machine-operators; Machinists; Employee-exposure; Mathematical-models; Industrial-equipment; Industrial-exposures; Machine-shop-workers; Mineral-oils; Grinding-equipment; Synthetic-materials
American Industrial Hygiene Conference and Exposition, May 20-25, 2000, Orlando, Florida