Alternatives to chlorinated solvents: the use of 1-bromopropane (npropyl bromide) in spray adhesives.
American Industrial Hygiene Conference and Exposition, May 20-25, 2000, Orlando, Florida. Fairfax, VA: American Industrial Hygiene Association, 2000 May; :69
For many years, 1,1,1-trichloroethane and methylene chloride were used in various industries. Due to international concerns of stratospheric ozone depletion, production of 1,1,1-trichloroethane was banned in 1996. Also, OSHA recently promulgated regulations on methylene chloride exposures and use. Considering this, suitable alternatives are being considered for the solvent vehicles in spray adhesives. A potential alternative that is becoming popular is 1-bromopropane (1-BP). There are no NIOSH, ACGIH, or OSHA exposure criteria for 1-BP. A literature review yields little health effects and toxicological information, especially when considering worker exposure or epidemiologic studies. A 1-BP manufacturer recommends a full-shift exposure guideline of 100 ppm. This limit is based on data from a 90-day inhalation study in rats. An EPA review found that workplace exposures in the 50-100 ppm range may be protective. NIOSH recently conducted an exposure study at a facility using 1-BP-based spray adhesives in the manufacture of aircraft seats. The facility has four departments; the covers and assembly departments use the adhesive, while workers in the saw and sew departments were secondarily exposed. The mean 1- BP full-shift exposure for all workers was 168.9 ppm (n = 69), and these ranged from 60 ppm to 381.2 ppm. All but two were above the manufacturer's guideline of 100 ppm. The highest exposures were in covers department (mean of 197 ppm), followed by assembly (169.8 ppm) and saw (117.1 ppm). Area air sampling in the sew department found a mean 1-BP concentration of 128.1 ppm. This study indicates that high exposures can occur during the use of 1-BP-based spray adhesives. Recommendations were provided to the employer for the proper design of spray booths, and for the proper selection of personal protective equipment.
Chemical-analysis; Regulations; Chlorinated-ethanes; Chlorides; Methyl-compounds; Chemical-properties; Solvents; Adhesives; Hazardous-materials; Health-hazards; Sprays; Brominated-compounds; Brominated-propanes; Exposure-assessment; Exposure-levels; Air-sampling; Aircraft-parts-and-auxiliary-equipment; Industrial-exposures; Employee-exposure; Equipment-design; Spraying-booths; Personal-protective-equipment
71-55-6; 75-09-2; 106-94-5
American Industrial Hygiene Conference and Exposition, May 20-25, 2000, Orlando, Florida