Wipe sampling to assess pesticide exposures on skin: preliminary method evaluation.
Boeniger M; Carreon T; Sanderson W; Nishioka M
American Industrial Hygiene Conference and Exposition, June 2-7, 2001, New Orleans, Louisiana. Fairfax, VA: American Industrial Hygiene Association, 2001 Jun; :71
Background: Skin exposures to pesticides in agriculture are considered to be the primary route of worker contact. However, there remains a paucity of data about how to quantify and interpret sampling results. A preliminary range finding and method evaluation survey was recently performed in California in preparation for a larger study to determine exposure reduction intervention effectiveness. Methods: Hand wipes (using the NHEXAS isopropanol moistened J&J Sof-Wick gauze wipe method consisting of 2 consecutive wipes) were obtained during harvesting of a strawberry field that had been previously sprayed with malathion. Various approaches were used that would provide useful information for a larger study. Results: Mean whole hand pre-wash and post wash malathion loading (n=6) was 6696 ng and 2469 ng, representing a 63% reduction of surface hand concentration, while mean digit pre-wash and post-wash malathion loading (n=6) was 1312 ng and 893 ng, for a 32% reduction, respectively. Consecutive wiping of contaminated skin did not indicate highly efficient removal with each wipe. Average decline was 47% for 2nd digit wipe and 37% for 3rd digit wipe. Conclusions: The EPA hand wiping method did not apparently efficiently remove the amount of malathion loading present either before or after washing, although when loading was low (as when wearing gloves) removal appeared complete. Perhaps alternative sampling methods are more efficient, but this would need to be similarly evaluated. Efficiency of skin sampling methods and comparison to other methods continues to be a significant need in exposure assessment characterization.
Exposure-levels; Skin; Skin-absorption; Skin-exposure; Pesticides-and-agricultural-chemicals; Pesticides; Agriculture; Agricultural-chemicals; Agricultural-workers; Humans; Men; Women; Exposure-levels; Sampling; Statistical-analysis
American Industrial Hygiene Conference and Exposition, June 2-7, 2001, New Orleans, Louisiana