Association of sleep quality with depression in police officers.
Slaven-JE; Burchfiel-CM; Charles-LE; Gu-JK; Fekedulegn-D; Mnatsakanova-A; Smith-LM; Andrew-ME; Ma-C; Violanti-JM
Int J Emerg Mental Health 2011 Oct; 13(4):267-277
Poor sleep quality has been shown to adversely affect neurobehavior, including an increase in depression symptoms. Police officers are at increased risk of poor sleep quality due to occupational factors. This study analyzed self-reported sleep and depression data from police officers; 391 police officers from Buffalo, New York reported on sleep and depression by completing the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) questionnaires. Mean CES-D scores were assessed across quintiles of PSQI. As PSQI scores increased, reflecting poorer sleep quality, CES-D scores also increased significantly, indicating an increase in depression symptoms as sleep quality worsens. This trend held for both male and female officers. Mean CES-D scores across quintiles ranged from 4.72 to 12.65 in men and from 5.53 to 12.63 in women. Multivariate adjustment only very slightly attenuated the association in female officers. After adjustment, five of the seven PSQI components showed statistically significant associations with CES-D scores in male officers and two in female officers. Sleep quality was significantly and independently associated with depressive symptoms as evidenced by a trend of increasing depressive symptom scores with decreasing sleep quality in both male and female officers.
Humans; Men; Women; Law-enforcement-workers; Stress; Age-groups; Neurological-system; Sleep-disorders; Sleep-deprivation; Occupational-health; Police-officers; Emergency-responders; Cardiovascular-system-disease; Cardiovascular-system-disorders; Cardiovascular-disease;
Author Keywords: law enforcement; cardiovascular disease; risk factors; health disparity; epidemiology
International Journal of Emergency Mental Health