Psychomotor vigilance testing of professional drivers in the occupational health clinic: a potential objective screen for daytime sleepiness.
Zhang-C; Varvarigou-V; Parks-PD; Gautam-S; Bueno-AV; Malhotra-A; Kales-SN
J Occup Environ Med 2012 Mar; 54(3):296-302
OBJECTIVE: Psychomotor vigilance testing (PVT) rapidly assesses attention, reaction time (RT), and abnormal vigilance. Thus, PVT may be an adjunct to screening drivers for high-risk obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)/excess daytime sleepiness (EDS). METHODS: Commercial drivers and emergency responders undergoing occupational examinations took a 10-minute PVT and were instructed to achieve their fastest possible RTs. Participants with maximum RT >5 seconds or = 2 "super lapses" (RT = 1000 ms) were categorized as "microsleepers." RESULTS: Among 193 male participants, the 15 microsleepers (8%) were significantly more obese, but not different on age or Epworth Sleepiness Score. Time of day had no effect on RT. CONCLUSION: PVT is suitable to occupational clinics and can identify otherwise unrecognized, impaired vigilance. Further studies must validate the PVT abnormalities most predictive of OSA/EDS and vehicular crashes, compared to adiposity measures alone.
Humans; Men; Women; Age-groups; Weight-factors; Psychomotor-function; Physical-examination; Physiology; Sleep-disorders; Drivers
Stefanos N. Kales,MD,MPH, The Cambridge Health Alliance, Employee & Industrial Medicine, 1493 Cambridge Street, Macht Building, Suite 427, Cambridge, MA 02139
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Harvard School of Public Health