Responses to pulmonary exposure to carbon nanotubes.
The toxicology of carbon nanotubes. Donaldson K, Poland CA, Duffrin R, Bonner J, eds., New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012 Jun; :133-149
In general, pulmonary exposure of rats or mice by intratracheal instillation, pharyngeal aspiration, or inhalation of SWCNT or MWCNT results in transient inflammation and lung damage. Granulomatous lesions and interstitial fibrosis, which are of rapid onset and persistent in nature, have also been a common report. The presence (raw) or absence (purified) of catalytic metals does not appear to greatly affect pulmonary response. The degree of agglomeration does affect deposition site and response. Large agglomerates tend to deposit at the terminal bronchioles and proximal alveoli and induce a granulomatous response, while more dispersed structures can deposit in the distal alveoli and cause interstitial fibrosis. The lung may be exposed to more dispersed CNT structures by inhalation than by exposure to a suspension of CNT. When this is the case, the response to short-term inhalation is often greater than that for the same lung burden given as a bolus dose. Pulmonary exposure to CNT has also been shown to cause changes in cardiovascular and central nervous system function . Mechanisms, such as inflammatory signals or neurogenic pathways, causing these systemic responses to pulmonary CNT exposure are under investigation. In light of the pulmonary and systemic responses reported in rodent studies, it appears prudent to minimize worker exposure to CNT. Normal industrial hygiene practices, i.e. containment, ventilation, and personal protective equipment, appear effective in controlling exposure
Nanotechnology; Lung-function; Lung; Lung-disorders; Laboratory-animals; Animals; Cancer; Metals; Bronchial-cancer; Alveolar-cells; Fibrosis; Inhalants; Exposure-levels; Pulmonary-function; Pulmonary-system; Pulmonary-system-disorders; Cardiopulmonary-function; Cardiopulmonary-system; Cardiopulmonary-system-disorders; Cardiovascular-system; Cardiovascular-system-disease; Cardiovascular-system-disorders; Industrial-hygiene; Ventilation; Personal-protective-equipment; Respiratory-system-disorders; Respiratory-protective-equipment
Donaldson-K; Poland-CA; Duffin-R; Bonner-J
The toxicology of carbon nanotubes