Evaluation and comparison of urinary metabolic biomarkers of exposure for the jet fuel JP-8.
B'Hymer-C; Krieg-E Jr.; Cheever-KL; Toennis-CA; Clark-JC; Kesner-JS; Gibson-RL; Butler-MA
J Toxicol Environ Health, A 2012 Jun; 75(11):661-672
A study of workers exposed to jet fuel propellant 8 (JP-8) was conducted at U.S. Air Force bases and included the evaluation of three biomarkers of exposure: S-benzylmercapturic acid (BMA), S-phenylmercapturic acid (PMA), and (2-methoxyethoxy)acetic acid (MEAA). Postshift urine specimens were collected from various personnel categorized as high (n = 98), moderate (n = 38) and low (n = 61) JP-8 exposure based on work activities. BMA and PMA urinary levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), and MEAA urinary levels were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The numbers of samples determined as positive for the presence of the BMA biomarker (above the test method's limit of detection [LOD = 0.5 ng/ml]) were 96 (98.0%), 37 (97.4%), and 58 (95.1%) for the high, moderate, and low (control) exposure workgroup categories, respectively. The numbers of samples determined as positive for the presence of the PMA biomarker (LOD = 0.5 ng/ml) were 33 (33.7%), 9 (23.7%), and 12 (19.7%) for the high, moderate, and low exposure categories. The numbers of samples determined as positive for the presence of the MEAA biomarker (LOD = 0.1 microg/ml) were 92 (93.4%), 13 (34.2%), and 2 (3.3%) for the high, moderate, and low exposure categories. Statistical analysis of the mean levels of the analytes demonstrated MEAA to be the most accurate or appropriate biomarker for JP-8 exposure using urinary concentrations either adjusted or not adjusted for creatinine; mean levels of BMA and PMA were not statistically significant between workgroup categories after adjusting for creatinine.
Jet-engine-fuels; Biomarkers; Urinalysis; Urine-chemistry; Biochemical-indicators; Metabolites; Fuels; Acetic-acids; Military-personnel; Exposure-assessment; Liquid-chromatography; Mass-spectrometry; Sampling; Sampling-methods; Statistical-analysis; Employee-exposure; Acids; Gas-chromatography; Chromatographic-analysis; Phenyls
Clyaton B'Hymer, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Applied Research and Technology, Taft Laboratory, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226 USA
19542-77-9; 16024-56-9; 20640-68-0
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A: Current Issues