Pulmonary and cardiovascular responses of rats to inhalation of a commercial antimicrobial spray containing titanium dioxide nanoparticles.
McKinney-W; Jackson-M; Sager-TM; Reynolds-JS; Chen-BT; Afshari-A; Krajnak-K; Waugh-S; Johnson-C; Mercer-RR; Frazer-DG; Thomas-TA; Castranova-V
Inhal Toxicol 2012 Jun; 24(7):447-457
Our laboratory has previously demonstrated that application of an antimicrobial spray product containing titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) generates an aerosol of titanium dioxide in the breathing zone of the applicator. The present report describes the design of an automated spray system and the characterization of the aerosol delivered to a whole body inhalation chamber. This system produced stable airborne levels of TiO(2) particles with a median count size diameter of 110 nm. Rats were exposed to 314 mg/m(3) min (low dose), 826 mg/m(3) min (medium dose), and 3638 mg/m(3) min (high dose) of TiO(2) under the following conditions: 2.62 mg/m(3) for 2 h, 1.72 mg/m(3) 4 h/day for 2 days, and 3.79 mg/m(3) 4 h/day for 4 days, respectively. Pulmonary (breathing rate, specific airway resistance, inflammation, and lung damage) and cardiovascular (the responsiveness of the tail artery to constrictor or dilatory agents) endpoints were monitored 24 h post-exposure. No significant pulmonary or cardiovascular changes were noted at low and middle dose levels. However, the high dose caused significant increases in breathing rate, pulmonary inflammation, and lung cell injury. Results suggest that occasional consumer use of this antimicrobial spray product should not be a hazard. However, extended exposure of workers routinely applying this product to surfaces should be avoided. During application, care should be taken to minimize exposure by working under well ventilated conditions and by employing respiratory protection as needed. It would be prudent to avoid exposure to children or those with pre-existing respiratory disease.
Sprays; Aerosols; Breathing; Breathing-zone; Inhalation-studies; Inhalants; Airborne-particles; Particulates; Particulate-dust; Laboratory-animals; Animals; Pulmonary-function; Pulmonary-system; Pulmonary-system-disorders; Lung; Lung-function; Cardiovascular-system; Cardiovascular-function; Lung-cells; Exposure-levels; Exposure-limits; Respiratory-protection; Respiratory-protective-equipment; Nanotechnology;
Author Keywords: Nano TiO2; antimicrobial spray; inhalation studies; pulmonary responses; cardiovascular responses
Vincent Castranova, NIOSH, 1095 Willowdale Road, Morgantown, WV 26505