Interactions of carbon nanotubes with the immune system: focus on mechanisms of internalization and biodegradation.
Fadeel-B; Shvedova-AA; Kagan-VE
Nanomedicine: basic and clinical applications in diagnostics and therapy, chapter 3: nanotoxicity. Alexiou-C, ed., Basel: Karger, 2011 Jan; 2:80-87
Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are cylinders of one or several coaxial graphite layer(s) with a diameter on the nanometer scale. CNT can be readily functionalized, and exciting studies on the use of CNT as excipients for drug delivery and imaging of disease processes have been reported. On the other hand, CNT were also shown to induce oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis, and animal studies have suggested similarities between the pathogenic properties of certain multiwalled CNT and those of asbestos fibers. Recent studies have disclosed that CNT are susceptible to enzymatic biodegradation, and this observation could hold the key to the safe application of these nanomaterials in biomedicine. Here, we provide a brief overview of pertinent toxicological and biomedical investigations of CNT including recent work on the interaction of CNT with immune-competent cells, focusing on cellular recognition of nanotubes and their enzymatic degradation.
Nanotechnology; Oxidative-processes; Oxidative-enzymes; Biomedical-engineering; Enzymes; Enzymatic-effects
Nanomedicine: basic and clinical applications in diagnostics and therapy, chapter 3: nanotoxicity