Animal model of (1-->3)-beta-glucan-induced pulmonary inflammation in rats.
Toxicology of 1-->3-beta-glucans: glucans as a marker for fungal exposure. Young S-H, Castranova V, eds. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2005 Jan; :65-93
Results of studies from our laboratory indicate that zymosan A (a crude form of [1-->3]-beta-glucans) can induce pulmonary inflammation in rats when inhaled. There is a direct dose-response and time course relationship between zymosan A exposure and development of pulmonary inflammation. The NaOH-soluble forms of zymosan A cause mild inflammation in rats, while NaOH-insoluble zymosan A induces a significant greater degree of pulmonary inflammation in rats. An open triple helix conformation of zymosan is more potent than a closed triple helix toward some assays. Pretreatment with particulate [1-->3]-beta-glucans inhibits pulmonary responses to subsequent LPS exposure. Most of the current [1-->3]-beta-glucan analysis methods can only analyze glucans in the soluble form (either by heat extraction or NaOH extraction or a combination of both). However, our studies indicate that the level of inflammation correlates well with the insoluble fraction of [1-->3]-beta-glucans but not with the soluble fraction of [1-->3]-beta-glucans. Therefore, there is a need to develop alternative methods for analysis the insoluble fraction of [1-->3]-beta-glucans.
Biomarkers; Microorganisms; Microbial-test-systems; Analytical-processes; Risk-analysis; Exposure-assessment
Toxicology of 1-->3-beta-glucans: glucans as a marker for fungal exposure