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Type and toxicity of pesticides sold for community vector control use in the Gambia.
Murphy-MW; Sanderson-WT; Birch-ME; Liang-F; Sanyang-E; Canteh-M; Cook-TM; Murphy-SC
Epidemiol Res Int 2012 Jun; 2012:387603
Objectives. The objective of this study was to identify the types of pesticides in circulation at local markets in The Gambia and to determine the proportion of products that were sold as unlabeled pesticides. Methods. One hundred twenty-eight samples sold as pesticides were collected from four local markets throughout The Gambia. Pesticides in the samples were identified by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Findings. Of the 128 samples collected, 115 were unlabeled. Pesticide components in 111 of those unlabeled samples were identified. Approximately 28% of these samples that contained pesticides are banned or restricted in the United States, and about 16% was classified as hazardous by WHO. Conclusions. Based on results for 128 samples, a significant percentage of the pesticide products sold at local markets in The Gambia in 2005 are considered extremely hazardous.
Pesticides; Pesticides-and-agricultural-chemicals; Agriculture; Farmers; Risk-factors; Hazardous-materials; Hazards; Poisons; Diseases; Disease-vectors; Exposure-levels; Exposure-limits; Epidemiology
M. W. Murphy, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242
Services: Public Safety
Epidemiology Research International
IA; KY; OH