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Modeling mixed exposures: an application to welding fumes in the construction trades.
Stoch Environ Res Risk Assess 2010 Mar; 24(3):377-388
Workers are often exposed to mixtures of airborne contaminants which may complicate health studies, risk assessments, and epidemiological investigations. In situations where these mixed exposures are correlated, multivariate probability distributions may serve as models suitable for description and subsequent inference. This paper presents a methodology for modeling correlated mixed exposures using the Johnson system of multivariate probability distributions. This system involves transformations to normality and includes the multivariate normal and lognormal distributions, among others. The technique is illustrated with manganese exposures for pipefitters and boilermakers conditioned upon a measurement of total particulate exposure. Applications involving compliance and risk assessment for mixed exposure problems are presented using the fitted distributions.
Construction-industry; Construction-workers; Construction-equipment; Construction; Health-hazards; Welders; Welding; Welding-equipment; Fumes; Exposure-assessment; Air-contamination; Airborne-particles; Metal-compounds; Metal-fumes; Manganese-compounds; Mathematical-models; Analytical-models; Statistical-analysis; Risk-analysis; Author Keywords: Mixed exposures; Exposure models; Manganese; Welding; Construction
M. R. Flynn, Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7431, USA
Cooperative Agreement; Construction
Issue of Publication
Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment
CPWR-The Center for Construction Research and Training, Silver Spring, Maryland