Development of pulmonary tolerance in mice exposed to zinc oxide fumes.
Wesselkamper-SC; Chen-LC; Gordon-T
Toxicol Sci 2001 Mar; 60(1):144-151
As a result of repeated exposures to inhaled toxicants such as zinc oxide (ZnO), numerous individuals acquire tolerance to the exposures and display reduced symptoms. To ascertain whether tolerance is developed in an animal model, NIH-Swiss mice were exposed to 1.0 mg/m(3) ZnO for 1, 3, or 5 days (1X, 3X, or 5X), and polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) and protein levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were measured. Mice acquired tolerance to neutrophil infiltration into the lungs, as total PMNs returned near baseline in 5X-exposed animals as compared to that of the 1X exposure group (1X = 2.7 +/- 0.4 x 10(4), 5X = 0.2 +/- 0.1 x 10(4), mean +/- SE, p < 0.05). Development of tolerance to changes in lavageable protein, however, was not observed (1X = 313 +/- 29 microg/ml, 5X = 684 +/- 71 microg/ml, p < 0.05). Tolerance to PMN influx did not persist following re-exposure to ZnO after 5 days of rest. In contrast to ZnO exposure, following single and repeated exposure to aerosolized endotoxin there was development of tolerance to protein in BAL (1X = 174 +/- 71 microg/ml, 5X = 166 +/- 14 microg/ml, p > 0.05), but not to PMN influx (1X = 5.5 +/- 1.7 x 10(4), 13.9 +/- 1.7 x 10(4), p < 0.05). Induction of lung metallothionein (MT) was also observed in mice exposed once or repeatedly exposed to ZnO, suggesting that MT may play a role in its molecular mechanism.
Zinc-compounds; Inhalants; Clinical-symptoms; Tolerance-threshold; Laboratory-animals; Laboratory-testing; Exposure-levels; Exposure-assessment; Leukocytes; Alveolar-cells; Pulmonary-function; Pulmonary-system; Lung-irritants; Fumes; Metal-fumes; Toxic-vapors; Toxins; Proteins; Endotoxins; Neutrophils; Adaptation; Metalloproteins; Metal-fume-fever;
Author Keywords: zinc-oxide; tolerance; Metallothionein; metal fume fever; endotoxin; adaptation
Terry Gordon, Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 57 Old Forge Road, Tuxedo, New York 10987, USA
Pulmonary System Disorders
Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut