Depression symptoms and carotid artery intima-media thickness in police officers.
Violanti-JM; Charles-LE; Gu-JK; Burchfiel-CM; Andrew-ME; Joseph-PN; Dorn-JM
Ann Behav Med 2012 Apr; 43(Suppl 1):S157
Police work is considered a stressful occupation. Depression may be an outcome of stress and depression has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This cross-sectional study tested the hypothesis that depressive symptoms in police officers are associatedwith carotid artery intimamedia thickness (CIMT), a subclinical marker for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Participants included 412 officers (mean age=41 years) with complete data (305 men and 107 women). CIMTwas measured with high resolution Bmode carotid ultrasonography. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. Analysis of Variance and Covariance were utilized to examine the mean values of common CIMT (CCA IMT) and maximum CIMT (MMXIMT) across quintiles of depressive symptoms. No significant linear association was observed for CES-D scores with CCA IMT or MMXIMT before or after adjustment for covariates. However, it is possible that officers with other CVD related comorbidities made the association between depressive symptoms and CIMT more difficult to detect. Therefore, we stratified other CVD risk factors (yes or no). Only hypertension made a difference; for officers classified with no hypertension, mean levels of CCA IMT increased with increasing quintiles of depression scores after adjustment for demographic and lifestyle variables (p= 0.022). After inclusion of other CVD risk factors in this model, the association remained close to significance (p=0.054). Future prospective work would help to clarify possible causal relationships between depression and CVD.
Police-officers; Mental-health; Job-stress; Psychological-stress; Cardiovascular-system-disorders; Cardiac-function; Men; Women; Employee-health; Ultrasonic-testing; Risk-factors; Morbidity-rates; Hypertension; Demographic-characteristics
John M. Violanti, PhD, Socila & Preventive Medicine, University at Buffalo, State University of NY, Buffalo, NY 14214
Services: Public Safety
Annals of Behavioral Medicine