Analysis of a kinetic multi-segment foot model. Part I: model repeatability and kinematic validity.
Bruening DA; Cooney KM; Buczek FL
Gait Posture 2012 Apr; 35(4):529-534
Kinematic multi-segment foot models are still evolving, but have seen increased use in clinical and research settings. The addition of kinetics may increase knowledge of foot and ankle function as well as influence multi-segment foot model evolution; however, previous kinetic models are too complex for clinical use. In this study we present a three-segment kinetic foot model and thorough evaluation of model performance during normal gait. In this first of two companion papers, model reference frames and joint centers are analyzed for repeatability, joint translations are measured, segment rigidity characterized, and sample joint angles presented. Within-tester and between-tester repeatability were first assessed using 10 healthy pediatric participants, while kinematic parameters were subsequently measured on 17 additional healthy pediatric participants. Repeatability errors were generally low for all sagittal plane measures as well as transverse plane Hindfoot and Forefoot segments (median<3 degrees), while the least repeatable orientations were the Hindfoot coronal plane and Hallux transverse plane. Joint translations were generally less than 2mm in any one direction, while segment rigidity analysis suggested rigid body behavior for the Shank and Hindfoot, with the Forefoot violating the rigid body assumptions in terminal stance/pre-swing. Joint excursions were consistent with previously published studies.
Models; Foot-injuries; Kinetics; Musculoskeletal-system; Bone-structure; Humans; Men; Women; Children; Physical-reactions;
Author Keywords: Multi-segment foot; Foot models; Gait analysis; Kinetics; Repeatability
Dustin A. Bruening, Shriners Hospitals for Children-Erie, 1645 W. 8th St., Erie, PA 16509
Gait and Posture