Effects of carbon-based nanomaterials on primary human immune-competent cells.
Fadeel B; Torres Andon F; Xiao L; Kisin E; Murray A; Shvedova A
Toxicologist 2012 Mar; 126(Suppl 1):274
Due to their novel electrical, optical, mechanical and chemical properties, carbon-based nanomaterials are currently of great interest for a variety of technological as well as biomedical applications. In this study, we investigated the interaction of three carbon-based nanomaterials with immune-competent cells namely graphene oxide (GO), a 2-D nanomaterial composed of layers of carbon atoms forming six-member rings; single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT), a 1-D nanomaterial formed by the rolling of graphene sheets into hollow tubes, and 3-D hollow carbon spheres (HCS). The materials were first confirmed to be free from endotoxin contamination. We then compared the effect of these nanomaterials on cell viability by Trypan Blue exclusion using primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM). No significant loss of cell viability was seen in cells treated with SWCNTs or GO up to 100 microg/ml up to 48 h, while a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect was seen for HCS. Cellular uptake of the three nanomaterials was monitored by transmission electron microscopy. We also studied the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-1alpha, using LPS-primed HMDM. Dose- and time-dependent activation of IL-1beta was noted for cells incubated with SWCNT and HCS, while GO only induce the secretion of IL-1beta, but to a lesser degree, at the highest dose (100 microg/ml). This work reveals immunotoxicity and/or immunostimulatory effects of three carbon-based nanomaterials.
Nanotechnology; Particulates; Toxic-materials; Health-hazards; Biohazards; Biomedical-engineering; Immune-reaction; Immune-system; Cell-function; Cellular-uptake; Oxidative-processes; Toxic-effects; Oxides; Dose-response; Cytotoxic-effects; Microscopic-analysis; Microscopy; Immunotoxins; Lung-cells; Pulmonary-system
The Toxicologist. Society of Toxicology 51st Annual Meeting and ToxExpo, March 11-15, 2012, San Francisco, California