Occupational exposure to trichloroethylene and cancer risk for workers at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant.
Bahr-DE; Aldrich-TE; Seidu-D; Brion-GM; Tollerud-DJ; Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Project Team; Muldoon-S; Reinhart-N; Youseefagha-A; McKinney-P; Hughes-T; Chan-C; Rice-C; Brewer-DE; Freyberg-RW; Mohlenkamp-AM; Hahn-K; Hornung-R; Ho-M; Dastidar-A; Freitas-S; Saman-D; Ravdal-H; Scutchfield-D; Eger-KJ; Minor-S
Int J Occup Environ Health 2011 Mar; 24(1):67-77
OBJECTIVE: The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) became operational in 1952; it is located in the western part of Kentucky. We conducted a mortality study for adverse health effects that workers may have suffered while working at the plant, including exposures to chemicals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied a cohort of 6820 workers at the PGDP for the period 1953 to 2003; there were a total of 1672 deaths to cohort members. Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a specific concern for this workforce; exposure to TCE occurred primarily in departments that clean the process equipment. The Life Table Analysis System (LTAS) program developed by NIOSH was used to calculate the standardized mortality ratios for the worker cohort and standardized rate ratio relative to exposure to TCE (the U.S. population is the referent for ageadjustment). LTAS calculated a significantly low overall SMR for these workers of 0.76 (95% CI: 0.72-0.79). A further review of three major cancers of interest to Kentucky produced significantly low SMR for trachea, bronchus, lung cancer (0.75, 95% CI: 0.72-0.79) and high SMR for Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) (1.49, 95% CI: 1.02-2.10). RESULTS: No significant SMR was observed for leukemia and no significant SRRs were observed for any disease. Both the leukemia and lung cancer results were examined and determined to reflect regional mortality patterns. However, the Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma finding suggests a curious amplification when living cases are included with the mortality experience. CONCLUSIONS: Further examination is recommended of this recurrent finding from all three U.S. Gaseous Diffusion plants.
Workers; Mortality-rates; Morbidity-rates; Exposure-levels; Exposure-limits; Humans; Men; Women; Age-groups; Pollutants; Epidemiology; Statistical-analysis; Cancer; Lung-cancer; Lung; Bronchial-cancer; Lung-function; Pulmonary-cancer; Pulmonary-disorders; Pulmonary-function; Pulmonary-system;
Author Keywords: Cohort study; Gaseous diffusion plant; Trichloroethylene; Healthy worker effect;
T.E. Aldrich, University of Kentucky, College of Public Health, 121 Washington Avenue, Lexington, KY 40536-003
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health
University of Louisville