Wages, wage violations, and pesticide safety experienced by migrant farmworkers in North Carolina.
Robinson-E; Nguyen-HT; Isom-S; Quandt-SA; Grzywacz-JG; Chen-H; Arcury-TA
New Solut 2011 Apr-Jun; 21(2):251-268
Farmworkers have the potential to receive wages that fail to meet minimum wage standards. This analysis describes wages and minimum wage violations among farmworkers, and it determines associations of wage violations with personal characteristics and pesticide safety regulation violations. Data are from a cross-sectional survey of 300 eastern North Carolina farmworkers conducted in June through August, 2009. Most farmworkers (90.0%) were paid by the hour, but 11.7 percent received piece-rate pay. Wage violations were prevalent among farmworkers: 18.3 percent of all farmworkers, 45.3 percent of farmworkers without H-2A visas, and 3.6 percent of farmworkers with H-2A visas experienced wage violations. Most farmworkers experienced numerous pesticide safety violations. Personal characteristics were not associated with wage violations among farmworkers without H-2A visas, but some pesticide safety violations were associated with wage violations. The association of violations indicates that some growers generally violate regulations. Greater enforcement of all regulations is needed.
Humans; Men; Women; Farmers; Pesticides; Questionnaires; Agricultural-chemicals; Agricultural-industry; Agriculture; Agricultural-workers; Workers; Safety-measures; Exposure-levels; Exposure-limits; Sociological-factors;
Author Keywords: occupational health; wage theft; minority health; health disparities
Thomas A. Arcury, Department of Family and Community Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157
Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing
New Solutions: A Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy
Mary Imogene Bassett Hospital, Cooperstown, New York