Measuring surface area of airborne titanium dioxide powder agglomerates: relationships between gas adsorption, diffusion and mobility-based methods.
LeBouf-RF; Ku-BK; Chen-BT; Frazer-DG; Cumpston-JL; Stefaniak-AB
J Nanoparticle Res 2011 Dec; 13(12):7029-7039
Inhalation toxicology studies generally use the Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) gas adsorption method to measure total surface area of particles whereas occupational exposures are more readily measured by real-time mobility-based surface areas or active surface area measured with diffusion charger-based instruments. Three surface area measurement methods were studied: filter-based inert gas adsorption (BET method), diffusion charging, and mobility-based methods. The goal of the project was to investigate and develop a correlation between the measurement methods. The experimental design consisted of measuring surface area in a series of five trials for each of two powder types, fine and ultrafine titanium dioxide with primary particle sizes of 440 and 20 nm, respectively, and two aerosol concentrations. Diffusion charger instruments tended to underestimate the total particle surface area measured by the BET, but were well correlated with mobility-based surface areas obtained from a scanning mobility particle sizer. Filter-based gas adsorption methods and diffusion charging methods provide different but valuable information on total and active surface areas of particles, respectively. Results indicate they should not be used as predictors of one another.
Nanotechnology; Dioxides; Analytical-instruments; Analytical-processes; Gas-adsorption; Diffusion-analysis; Surface-properties; Measurement-equipment; Inhalants; Toxic-materials; Analytical-methods; Particulates;
Author Keywords: Ultrafine titanium dioxide; Surface area; BET; Diffusion charger; Occupational health effects; EHS
A. B. Stefaniak, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Morgantown, WV 26505, USA
Journal of Nanoparticle Research