Occupational exposure to acrylamide in closed system production plants: air levels and biomonitoring.
Moorman-WJ; Reutman-SS; Shaw-PB; Blade-LM; Marlow-D; Vesper-H; Clark-JC; Schrader-SM
J Toxicol Environ Health, A 2012 Jan; 75(2):100-111
The aim of this study was to evaluate biomarkers of acrylamide exposure, including hemoglobin adducts and urinary metabolites in acrylamide production workers. Biomarkers are integrated measures of the internal dose, and it is total acrylamide dose from all routes and sources that may present health risks. Workers from three companies were studied. Workers potentially exposed to acrylamide monomer wore personal breathing-zone air samplers. Air samples and surface-wipe samples were collected and analyzed for acrylamide. General-area air samples were collected in chemical processing units and control rooms. Hemoglobin adducts were isolated from ethylenediamine teraacetic acid (EDTA)-whole blood, and adducts of acrylamide and glycidamide, at the N-terminal valines of hemoglobin, were cleaved from the protein chain by use of a modified Edman reaction. Full work-shift, personal breathing zone, and general-area air samples were collected and analyzed for particulate and acrylamide monomer vapor. The highest general-area concentration of acrylamide vapor was 350 µg/cm(3) in monomer production. Personal breathing zone and general-area concentrations of acrylamide vapor were found to be highest in monomer production operations, and lower levels were in the polymer production operations. Adduct levels varied widely among workers, with the highest in workers in the monomer and polymer production areas. The acrylamide adduct range was 15-1884 pmol/g; glycidamide adducts ranged from 17.8 to 1376 p/mol/g. The highest acrylamide and glycidamide adduct levels were found among monomer production process operators. The primary urinary metabolite N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl) cysteine (NACEC) ranged from the limit of detection to 15.4 µg/ml. Correlation of workplace exposure and sentinel health effects is needed to determine and control safe levels of exposure for regulatory standards.
Acrylamides; Biomarkers; Metabolites; Metabolism; Monomers; Sampling; Blood-analysis; Blood-samples; Blood-tests; Air-samples; Particulates; Vapors; Polymers; Urinalysis; Workers
William J. Moorman, NIOSH, DART, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH, 45226
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A: Current Issues