Development of an improved methodology to detect infectious airborne influenza virus using the NIOSH bioaerosol sampler.
Cao-G; Noti-JD; Blachere-FM; Lindsley-WG; Beezhold-DH
J Environ Monit 2011 Dec; 13(12):3321-3328
A unique two-stage cyclone bioaerosol sampler has been developed at NIOSH that can separate aerosols into three size fractions. The ability of this sampler to collect infectious airborne viruses from a calm-air chamber loaded with influenza A virus was tested. The sampler's efficiency at collecting aerosolized viral particles from a calm-air chamber is essentially the same as that from the high performance SKC BioSampler that collects un-fractionated particles directly into a liquid media (2.4 x 10(4) total viral particles per liter of sampled air (TVP/L) versus 2.6 x 10(4) TVP/L, respectively, after 15 min) and the efficiency is relatively constant over collection times of 15, 30 and 60 min. Approximately 34 percent of the aerosolized infectious virus collected after 15 min with the NIOSH bioaerosol sampler remained infectious, and infectious virus was found in all three size fractions. After 60 min of sampling, the infectious virus/liter air found in the NIOSH bioaerosol sampler was 15 percent of that found in the SKC BioSampler. This preservation of infectivity by the NIOSH bioaerosol sampler was maintained even when the initial infectivity prior to aerosolization was as low as 0.06 percent. The utility of the NIOSH bioaerosol sampler was further extended by incorporating an enhanced infectivity detection methodology developed in our laboratory, the viral replication assay, which amplified the infectious virus making it more readily detectable.
Sampling-methods; Infectious-diseases; Detectors; Viral-infections; Viral-diseases; Aerosol-sampling; Cyclone-air-samplers; Samplers; Air-samplers; Air-sampling-equipment; Air-sampling-techniques; Airborne-particles; Equipment-reliability; Bioassays; Microorganisms
J. D. Noti, Allergy and Clinical Immunology Branch, Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1095 Willowdale Road, M.S. 4020, Morgantown, WV 26505-2888, USA
Journal of Environmental Monitoring