Demographic characteristics, menopausal status, and depression in midlife immigrant women.
Michaels Miller-A; Sorokin-O; Wilbur-J; Chandler-PJ
Womens Health Issues 2004 Nov-Dec; 14(6):227-234
The purpose of this cross-sectional analysis is to examine symptoms of depressed mood in relation to age, menopausal status, and length of residence in the United States in midlife women who are recent immigrants from the former Soviet Union. Data for this analysis are from a longitudinal study of the impact of acculturation on postimmigration health status and psychological well-being. The mean score for the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale was 23.56, with 77.3% of the women obtaining a score greater than the usual screening cutoff score for referral. Women taking antidepressant medications had a mean score of 30.52. CES-D scores varied significantly by age group. The lowest CES-D scores were reported by women aged 40-50, and women aged 55-60 had significantly higher scores than younger women and those over 65 years old. Total CES-D scores did not vary significantly by length of residence in United States or use of hormone therapy. Regression analysis indicated that even when use of antidepressant medication was held constant, age and residence in the United States were significant independent contributors to CES-D score: women who were older, had lived fewer years in the United States, and those who took antidepressants had higher CES-D scores. Cultural and immigration-related explanations for high scores on the depression scale are suggested.
Humans; Women; Age-factors; Health-care; Behavior; Psychological-factors; Psychological-effects; Psychological-stress; Antidepressants; Racial-factors
Arlene Michaels Miller, PhD, RN, College of Nursing, 845 South Damen Room 1016, Chicago, IL 60612
Women's Health Issues
University of Illinois-Chicago