Human health risk assessment.
Laszcz-Davis-C; Boelter-FW; Hearl-F; Jayjock-M; Logan-P; McLaughlin-CF; O'Reilly-M; Radcliffe-RT Jr.; Stenzel-M
Patty's Industrial Hygiene, Sixth Edition, Volume 2. Rose VE, Cohrrsen B, eds., Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2011 Jan; :695-826
The practice of assessing chemical exposure risks in order to support regulatory decisions is a relatively recent development in human history. Up until the twentieth century, diseases had been observed to be associated with specific occupations, living conditions, and chemicals. However, these observations were predominantly qualitative. In addition, the focus on public health was predominantly associated with concerns about infectious disease up until about the mid-twentieth century. The quantification of risks took hold in the 1970s, largely for the following reasons - shift from a high incidence of infectious disease to concerns about chronic disease; new awareness of the risks resulting from exposures to chemicals; and scientific and technological advances such as chemical analysis, toxicity testing, epidemiology, and computers. This chapter recounts the history and evolution of human health risk assessment, tracing the development of tools and models that made it possible, as well as the factors in society that made it indispensable. It defines the practice of risk assessment today, taking the reader through hazard and exposure analysis, risk characterization, the management of risk, and the public's reaction to risk.
Risk-analysis; Public-health; Occupational-diseases; Occupational-exposure; Occupational-hazards; Occupational-health; Qualitative-analysis; Quantitative-analysis
Book or book chapter
Patty's Industrial Hygiene, Sixth Edition, Volume 2