Cardiovascular disease risk factors and menopausal status in midlife women from the former Soviet Union.
Miller-AM; Wilbur-J; Chandler-PJ; Sorokin-O
Women Health 2003 Jul; 38(3):19-36
The purpose of this cross-sectional analysis is to examine modifiable CVD risk factors in relation to menopausal status, age, and length of residence in the U.S. of midlife women from the former Soviet Union. The analysis includes baseline data for 193 women, aged 40-70, who lived in the U.S. fewer than 8 years and were enrolled in an ongoing four-year study of post-immigration health and behavior change. Data collection was conducted in women's homes or other community locations. The presence of seven health risk indicators (obesity, dyslipidemia, high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, sedentary lifestyle, smoking, and excessive alcohol use) was assessed. In addition, Framingham 10 year risk scores for heart disease, and the presence of metabolic syndrome, were calculated using recent National Cholesterol Education Program (ATP-III) guidelines. Consistent with the age distribution, 60% of the women were postmenopausal. Four risk indicators (obesity, dyslipidemia, high blood pressure, and sedentary lifestyle) were identified as significant areas of concern. Although the Framingham risk scores did not seem excessively high, almost 25% of the women had metabolic syndrome. Older and postmenopausal women had significantly higher scores on all risk estimates. When age and menopausal status were held constant, menopausal status remained an independent contributor for the number of CVD risk indicators. Issues specific to this group of women because of their pre- and post-migration lifestyles are discussed in relation to their CVD risk status.
Women; Metabolic-disorders; Age-groups; Estrogenic-hormones; Epidemiology; Risk-factors; Weight-factors; Blood-pressure;
Author Keywords: Cardiovascular disease; menopause; immigrants; women's
Arlene Michaels Miller, PhD, RN, University of Illinois at Chicago, College of Nursing, M/C 802, 845 South Damen, Room 1016, Chicago, IL 60612
Women and Health
University of Illinois-Chicago