The concentrations of chemicals in sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) may relate to their levels of use and environmental pollution in the region. In this work, sludge samples were collected from 31 WWTPs in 26 cities in China and analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The concentrations of SigmaPBDE (sum of congeners 17, 28, 47, 66, 71, 85, 99, 100, 138, 153, 154, and 183) ranged from 6.2 to 57ng/g (dw). The concentration of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) ranged from below limit of detection (LOD) to 1109ng/g (dw) (with a median of 27ng/g (dw)), and averaged 55% (median 69%) of the total PBDEs. These levels are about 10-100 times lower than those found in Europe and North America. PBDE levels in sludge were not found to depend on the location and capacity of the WWTPs. Concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) and its major degradation products, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) ranged from below detection limit to 167ng/g (dw), 11 to 1065ng/g (dw), and 7.5 to 319ng/g (dw), respectively. The major DDT degradation products were p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD. The major hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomer in sludge is beta-HCH, reflecting its higher affinity to solids and resistance to degradation than other isomers.
Hydrocarbons; Sewage-industry; Environmental-exposure; Environmental-pollution; Quality-control; Fluids; Analytical-methods; Pesticides; Pesticide-residues; Organo-chlorine-compounds;
Author Keywords: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers; Sewage sludge; Organochlorine pesticides; Wastewater treatment plants
Guibin Jiang, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China