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The evolution of skin notations for occupational risk assessment: a new NIOSH strategy.
Dotson-GS; Chen-C-P; Gadagbui-B; Maier-A; Ahlers-HW; Lentz-TJ
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2011 Oct; 61(1):53-62
This article presents an overview of a strategy for assignment of hazard-specific skin notations (SK), developed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). This health hazard characterization strategy relies on multiple SKs capable of delineating systemic (SYS), direct (DIR), and immune-mediated (SEN) adverse effects caused by dermal exposures to chemicals. One advantage of the NIOSH strategy is the ability to combine SKs when it is determined that a chemical may cause multi ple adverse effects following dermal contact (e.g., SK: SYS-DIR-SEN). Assignment of the SKs is based on a weight-of-evidence (WOE) approach, which refers to the critical examination of all available data from diverse lines of evidence and the derivation of a scientific interpretation based on the collective body of data including its relevance, quality, and reported results. Numeric cutoff values, based on indices of toxic potency, serve as guidelines to aid in consistently determining a chemical's relative toxicity and hazard potential. The NIOSH strategy documents the scientific rationale for determination of the hazard potential of a chemical and the subsequent assignment of SKs. A case study of acrylamide is presented as an application of the NIOSH strategy.
Biohazards; Biological-effects; Biological-factors; Chemical-hypersensitivity; Exposure-assessment; Immune-reaction; Immunology; Risk-analysis; Risk-factors; Skin-absorption; Skin-disorders; Skin-exposure; Skin-infections; Skin-irritants; Skin-sensitivity; Toxic-effects; Toxic-materials; Toxicology; Dermal-exposure; Dermal-absorption; Author Keywords: Skin notations; Skin; Chemicals; Occupational; Hazard characterization; Risk assessment
G. Scott Dotson, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Education and Information Division (EID), 4676 Columbia Parkway, MS-C32, Cincinnati, OH 45226
Issue of Publication
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology