A field study to assess the long-term sampling feasibility of evacuated canisters and the development of a mathematical model to analyze potential sampling bias.
J Occup Environ Hyg 2005 Sep; 2(9):474-480
Small, evacuated canisters (300 mL) equipped with a unique capillary flow controller were used to evaluate airborne concentrations of Stoddard solvent. The physical characteristics of the flow controller permitted the collection of air samples for a time period of 40 hours (5 consecutive work days). Long-term sampling (greater than 8 hours) is rarely performed in industrial hygiene due to limitations in current air sampling technology but may provide valuable information in characterizing worker cumulative exposures for some processes. A field study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of collecting a 40-hour area sample using the small canisters. Six canister samplers were used as area monitors to evaluate a cleaning operation for an entire workweek. For comparison, 30 diffusive badges (6 per day) were simultaneously used to monitor the same process. No statistical difference was found between the time-weighted average for the two sampling methods (p>0.05). In addition, the canister samples integrate airborne concentrations for an entire workweek and therefore peak concentrations are not explicitly observed. Thus, an examination of peak exposures using simulated concentrations was conducted. A mathematical model was developed to determine whether a significant sampling bias was associated with long-term canister sampling when peak concentrations are present. The maximum possible bias was determined to be less than 9% for peak amplitudes having 10 times the background concentration and well below that for smaller amplitudes. Long-term sampling with the small, evacuated canisters was found to provide results comparable to sorbent sampling methods but with the added benefit of a significantly increased sampling time.
Airborne-particles; Air-filters; Air-quality-measurement; Air-samplers; Air-samples; Air-sampling; Air-sampling-equipment; Air-sampling-techniques; Environmental-technology; Exposure-levels; Mathematical-models; Measurement-equipment; Quantitative-analysis; Sampling-methods; Solvent-vapors; Statistical-analysis; Time-weighted-average-exposure; Work-environment; Workplace-monitoring; Workplace-studies;
Author Keywords: air sampling; capillary-canister; evacuated canister; long-term sampling; sampling bias
Alan Rossner, Clarkson University, P.O. Box 5805, Potsdam, NY 13699
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene