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Comparison of endotoxin and particle bounce in Marple cascade samplers with and without impaction grease.
Kirychuk-SP; Reynolds-SJ; Koehncke-N; Nakatsu-J; Mehaffy-J
J Agromed 2009 Apr; 14(2):242-249
The health of persons engaged in agricultural activities are often related or associated with environmental exposures in their workplace. Accurately measuring, analyzing, and reporting these exposures is paramount to outcomes interpretation. This paper describes issues related to sampling air in poultry barns with a cascade impactor. Specifically, the authors describe how particle bounce can affect measurement outcomes and how the use of impaction grease can impact particle bounce and laboratory analyses such as endotoxin measurements. This project was designed to (1) study the effect of particle bounce in Marple cascade impactors that use polyvinyl chloride (PVC) filters; (2) to determine the effect of impaction grease on endotoxin assays when sampling poultry barn dust. A pilot study was undertaken utilizing six-stage Marple cascade impactors with PVC filters. Distortion of particulate size distributions and the effects of impaction grease on endotoxin analysis in samples of poultry dust distributed into a wind tunnel were studied. Although there was no significant difference in the overall dust concentration between utilizing impaction grease and not, there was a greater than 50% decrease in the mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) values when impaction grease was not utilized. There was no difference in airborne endotoxin concentration or endotoxin MMAD between filters treated with impaction grease and those not treated. The results indicate that particle bounce should be a consideration when sampling poultry barn dust with Marple samplers containing PVC filters with no impaction grease. Careful consideration should be given to the utilization of impaction grease on PVC filters, which will undergo endotoxin analysis, as there is potential for interference, particularly if high or low levels of endotoxin are anticipated.
Agricultural-industry; Agricultural-processes; Agriculture; Endotoxins; Environmental-exposure; Environmental-factors; Environmental-hazards; Environmental-health-monitoring; Filter-materials; Filters; Health-hazards; Injuries; Laboratory-testing; Particle-aerodynamics; Particulates; Poultry-industry; Poultry-workers; Risk-analysis; Risk-factors; Statistical-analysis; Women; Work-analysis; Work-areas; Work-environment; Worker-health; Work-operations; Work-performance; Workplace-studies; Work-practices; Microorganisms; Author Keywords: Dust; endotoxin; mass median aerodynamic diameter; Marple impactor; particle bounce
Shelley P. Kirychuk, RN, MSc, P.O. Box 120 RUH, 103 Hospital Drive, Saskatoon, SK S7N 0W8, Canada
Issue of Publication
Journal of Agromedicine