Comparative genotoxicity of fibrous particles: carbon nanofibers, single-walled carbon nanotubes, and asbestos.
Kisin-E; Murray-AR; Sargent-L; Lowry-D; Siegrist-K; Chirila-M; Schwegler-Berry-D; Leonard-S; Castranova-V; Fadeel-B; Kagan-VE; Shvedova-AA
Toxicologist 2011 Mar; 120(Suppl 2):252
Carbon nanofibers (CNF) are generating great interest in industrial sectors such as energy production and electronics, where alternative materials may have limited performance or are produced at a much higher cost. However, despite the increasing industrial use of carbon nanofibers, information on their potential adverse health effects is limited. In the current study, we examine the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of CNF (Pyrograf®-III) and compare it with the effects of asbestos fibers (crocidolite) or single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT). The genotoxic effects in hamster lung fibroblast (V79) cell line were examined using two complementary assays: comet and micronucleus (MN). In addition, we utilized fluorescence in situ hybridization to detect the chromatin pan-centromeric signals within the MN. The use of this probe allows the classification of MN as being centromere positive or centromere negative indicating their origin by anaugenic (chromosomal malsegregation) or clastogenic (chromosome breakage) mechanisms, respectively. Results from cytotoxicity tests revealed a concentration- and time-dependent loss of cell viability after exposure to all tested materials in the following sequence: asbestos> CNF>SWCNT. Additionally, cellular uptake and generation of oxygen radicals was seen in the murine RAW264.7 macrophage cell line following exposure to CNF or asbestos but not after administration of SWCNT. Comet and MN assays demonstrated the induction of DNA damage and MN after exposure to all tested materials with the strongest effect seen for CNF. Moreover, the chromatin pancentromeric signals within the MN were positive after cell exposure to CNF suggesting that the mitotic spindle and the segregation of the chromosomes were affected.
Biological-effects; Cell-biology; Cell-biology; Cell-function; Cell-metabolism; Cellular-function; Cellular-reactions; Cytotoxic-effects; Dose-response; Exposure-levels; Genes; Genetic-factors; Genotoxic-effects; Genotoxicity; Health-hazards; Inhalation-studies; Laboratories; Laboratory-testing; Lung-cells; Microchemistry; Microscopic-analysis; Nanotechnology; Physiological-effects; Pulmonary-system; Quantitative-analysis
The Toxicologist. Society of Toxicology 50th Annual Meeting and ToxExpo, March 6-10, 2011, Washington, DC
University of Pittsburgh at Pittsburgh