Understanding carbon nanotube genotoxicity.
Sargent-LM; Reynolds-SH; Hubbs-AF; Benkovic-SA; Lowry-DT; Kashon-ML; Siegrist-KJ; Mastovich-J; Sturgeon-JL; Bunker-KL; Dinu-CZ
Toxicologist 2011 Mar; 120(Suppl 2):11-12
Carbon nanotubes have many applications in medicine, electronics, aerospace and computer circuits. However, in order to use nanotubes for such applications, their potential genotoxic and cytotoxic effects need to be understood. We are studying nanotube interaction with cells and isolated cellular components, to determine mechanisms responsible for cell fate. Specifically, we exposed primary and immortalized human epithelial cells to single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes and examined the potential of nanotubes to induce genetic damage. The microscopy results showed fragmented centrosomes, multipolar mitotic spindles and errors in chromosome number following exposure to single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT). The larger multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) primarily induced mitotic spindles with one mitotic spindle pole. The nanotubes associated with microtubules and centrosomes and formed biohybrids localized at the nucleus. In order to explain this behavior, we polymerized microtubules in vitro and we used kinesin motors to show integration with nanotubes and manipulation of functional biohybrid assemblies. In eukaryotic cells, microtubules play roles in intracellular transport as well as cell division. Microtubules assemble into mitotic spindles, while the kinesin motors are responsible for microtubule-based transport and cellular division. Our results demonstrate disruption of the mitotic spindle by nanotubes and give further evidence of the mechanism responsible for the disruption of cell division. These results suggest caution should be used in the handling and processing of carbon nanotubes.
Airborne-particles; Biodynamics; Biological-effects; Cell-biology; Cell-division; Cellular-reactions; Cytotoxic-effects; Exposure-levels; Genotoxic-effects; Genotoxicity; Inhalation-studies; Lung; Lung-disorders; Microscopic-analysis; Nanotechnology; Physiological-effects; Pulmonary-system-disorders; Quantitative-analysis; Respiratory-system-disorders; Statistical-analysis; Toxic-effects
The Toxicologist. Society of Toxicology 50th Annual Meeting and ToxExpo, March 6-10, 2011, Washington, DC