Pulmonary toxicity of biodiesel particulate matter.
Shvedova-AA; Kisin-E; Murray-AR; Tkach-A; Schwegler-Berry-D; Young-SH; Kagan-VE; Bugarski-AD
Toxicologist 2011 Mar; 120(Suppl 2):314
Biodiesel is the only alternative fuel that currently meets requirements of the Clean Air Act. The use of biodiesel results in a substantial reduction of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter (PM) as compared to diesel emissions. The broad use of biodiesel in mining and other industries urge assessments of their health effects. We hypothesized that biodiesel PM is toxic to the lung and the toxicity is dependent on at least three major mechanisms: direct reactivity of biodiesel PM electrophiles towards critical biomolecules, induction of robust inflammatory response associated with the nano-sized components of biodiesel PM, and triggering of oxidative stress pathways via depletion of essential antioxidant molecules and activation of oxidative burst in inflammatory cells. In the current study, we compare toxic effects of neat or blended biodiesel PM in vitro and in vivo. Here, we report that biodiesel PM is cytotoxic to RAW 264.7 macrophages and triggering oxidative stress pathways via depletion of essential antioxidant molecules such as GSH. Our preliminary in vivo data indicating that pharyngeal aspiration exposures to biodiesel PM resulted in an augmentation of biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress as evidenced by significant depletion of antioxidants in mouse lungs, recruitment of inflammatory cells, changes in permeability of the lung epithelium, pulmonary cell damage and increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines as assessed in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Further investigations are warranted to elucidate the toxic properties of biodiesel PM in vitro and in vivo and the possible mechanisms involved in such toxicity.
Animals; Animal-studies; Biological-effects; Cell-biology; Cell-damage; Cellular-reactions; Cytotoxic-effects; Cytotoxicity; Exposure-levels; Fumes; Inhalation-studies; Laboratory-animals; Lung; Lung-disease; Lung-disorders; Lung-function; Lung-irritants; Nanotechnology; Oxidation; Oxidizers; Particle-aerodynamics; Particulates; Particulate-sampling-methods; Pulmonary-disorders; Pulmonary-function; Pulmonary-system; Pulmonary-system-disorders; Quantitative-analysis; Respiratory-hypersensitivity; Respiratory-irritants; Respiratory-system-disorders; Tissue-disorders; Toxic-effects; Toxic-vapors
The Toxicologist. Society of Toxicology 50th Annual Meeting and ToxExpo, March 6-10, 2011, Washington, DC