Dermal exposure to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate.
Nylander-French-LA; Ball-LM; Flynn-MR
Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, R01-OH-007598, 2007 Oct; :1-15
Skin is a major target for occupational chemical exposure and associated disease. Diisocyanates, used in applications involving polyurethane paints and plastics, are powerful sensitizers and a leading cause of occupationally induced asthma. Reaction of the isocyanate functional group with thiol groups of proteins such as keratins in skin may be involved in immune mediated responses and sensitization that could lead to development of allergic contact dermatitis (dermal-systemic effect) and also to asthma (airway-systemic effect). The relative magnitude of dermal versus inhalation exposure and the parameters that influence the extent of exposure by each route are not well understood. During this project, we have developed new efficient, sensitive, and specific techniques to measure 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) monomer and its oligomers uretidone, biuret, and isocyanurate. To our knowledge, we are the first to synthesize and purify urea derivatives of biuret and isocyanurate for use as standards and to quantify HDI and its three oligomers in air, tape-stripped skin, and paint samples collected from occupationally exposed workers. The commonly available air samplers for HDI may significantly underestimate or produce biased results due to evaporation or due to the potential for vapor to adsorb to the filter, which is supposed to collect aerosols only. We evaluated these commonly used air sampling methods for HDI vapor and aerosol and determined the efficiency and accuracy of these methods for HDI under laboratory and occupational exposure settings. Our results show a potential for underestimation of HDI-based polyisocyanates when commonly used short-term dual-stage sampling is employed to measure airborne levels of HDI. Based on our results, a single-stage 37-mm polypropylene or polystyrene cassette should be employed when performing monitoring of inhalation exposure to HDI during spray-painting.
Dermatology; Airborne-particles; Biological-effects; Biological-systems; Biomarkers; Breathing; Breathing-zone; Exposure-assessment; Exposure-levels; Inhalants; Lung-irritants; Particle-aerodynamics; Particulates; Pulmonary-system; Quantitative-analysis; Respiratory-hypersensitivity; Respiratory-irritants; Statistical-analysis; Workplace-studies; Paint-spraying; Paint-shops; Painters; Spray-painting; Vapors
Leena A. Nylander-French, Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public Health, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, CB #7431, Rosenau Hall, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7431
Final Grant Report
NTIS Accession No.
Dermal Exposure to 1,6-hexamethylene Diisocyanate
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina