Dissolution of beryllium in artificial lung alveolar macrophage phagolysosomal fluid.
Stefaniak-AB; Virji-MA; Day-GA
Chemosphere 2011 May; 83(8):1181-1187
Dissolution of a lung burden of poorly soluble beryllium particles is hypothesized to be necessary for development of chronic beryllium lung disease (CBD) in humans. As such, particle dissolution rate must be sufficient to activate the lung immune response and dissolution lifetime sufficient to maintain chronic inflammation for months to years to support development of disease. The purpose of this research was to investigate the hypothesis that poorly soluble beryllium compounds release ions via dissolution in lung fluid. Dissolution kinetics of 17 poorly soluble particulate beryllium materials that span extraction through ceramics machining (ores, hydroxide, metal, copper-beryllium [CuBe] fume, oxides) and three CuBe alloy reference materials (chips, solid block) were measured over 31 d using artificial lung alveolar macrophage phagolysosomal fluid (pH 4.5). Differences in beryllium-containing particle physicochemical properties translated into differences in dissolution rates and lifetimes in artificial phagolysosomal fluid. Among all materials, dissolution rate constant values ranged from 10(-5) to 10(-10) g cm(-2) d(-1) and halftimes ranged from tens to thousands of days. The presence of magnesium trisilicate in some beryllium oxide materials may have slowed dissolution rates. Materials associated with elevated prevalence of CBD had faster beryllium dissolution rates [10(-7)- 10(-8) g cm(-2) d(-1)] than materials not associated with elevated prevalence (p < 0.05).
Beryllium-compounds; Inhalation-studies; Lung-burden; Lung-disease; Mathematical-models; Particle-aerodynamics; Particulates; Pulmonary-disorders; Pulmonary-system; Pulmonary-system-disorders; Quantitative-analysis; Risk-factors; Statistical-analysis;
Author Keywords: Beryllium; Dissolution; Chronic beryllium disease; Lung burden; Immune diseases
Aleksandr B. Stefaniak, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1095 Willowdale Road, Mail Stop H-2703, Morgantown, WV 26505