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Violence in the schools: teachers at risk.

Gerberich SG; Nachreiner NM; Ryan AD; Church TR; McGovern PM; Geisser MS; Watt GD; Feda DM; Pinder E; Sage SK
APHA 134th Annual Meeting and Exposition, Boston, Massachusetts, November 4-8, 2006. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association, 2006 Nov; :132207
While school violence has been identified as a problem among students, little is known about violence against teachers. A two-phase study was implemented to determine the magnitude and consequences of physical assault (PA) and non-physical violence (NPV) and risk factors for PA in randomly selected state-licensed, working kindergarten-grade 12 educators (n = 6,469). Phase 1 (mailed 12-month retrospective survey) collected information about demographics, personal characteristics, and violent occurrences and consequences; Phase 2 (mailed case-control survey) collected exposure data: activities, others in the environment, school infrastructure and administration, and community socioeconomic status. Cases (n=395) reporting at least one PA are questioned about exposures in the month before and during the incident; controls (n=1185), are questioned about exposures on a randomly selected working month from all months during the study period. Potentially confounding variables are selected for multiple logistic regression from directed acyclic graphs and re-weighted to adjust for potential non-response and unknown eligibility biases. From initial results (78% response), rates per 100 persons per year were: PA, 8; NPV, 35. Rates for the subcategories of NPV included: threat, 16; verbal abuse, 29; harassment, 3; bullying, 9. Perpetrators were primarily: students, colleagues, and parents. Consequences included treatment: PA, 21%, NPV, 9%-18%; restricted activity: PA, 12%, NPV, 12%-19%; and change in work status: PA, 11%, NPV, 15%-28%. Among the NPV events, the highest percentages were for bullying. This unique study provides new knowledge that identifies the magnitude and consequences of violence experienced by teachers; identifying associated risk factors is integral to intervention development.
Demographic-characteristics; Education; Epidemiology; Injuries; Injury-prevention; Physical-reactions; Physical-stress; Physiological-response; Physiological-stress; Quantitative-analysis; Questionnaires; Risk-analysis; Risk-factors; Statistical-analysis; Work-environment; Worker-health; Worker-motivation; Work-organization; Workplace-studies; Author Keywords: Violence; Workplace Safety
Susan G. Gerberich, PhD, MPH, Division of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, MMC 807, 420 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455
Publication Date
Document Type
Email Address
Funding Type
Fiscal Year
Identifying No.
Grant-Number-T42-OH-008434; Grant-Number-R01-OH-007816
Source Name
APHA 134th Annual Meeting and Exposition, Boston, Massachusetts, November 4-8, 2006
Performing Organization
University of Minnesota Twin Cities
Page last reviewed: January 7, 2022
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division