Effective management of health and safety programs: a practical guide, 3rd edition. Moser R Jr., ed. Berverly Farms, MA: OEM Press, 2008 Mar; :177-190
LEADER, MANAGER, OR BOTH? In addition to having management responsibilities, many managers are or will be in leadership positions. Managers who assume leadership roles will likely incorporate their experiences in working for other leaders, provided they profited from seeing what worked and what didn't work for these leaders. Multiple texts that focus on leadership are available, and these can be of assistance to one who assumes a leadership role. Although the qualities of a good leader are complex and difficult to define, an "I know a good leader when I see one" approach to understanding leadership is insufficient. Comprehension of basic leadership principles and common traits of successful leaders is essential. First, it must be recognized that there are differences between being a leader and being a manager. A leader leads the organization, provides the vision for the group, promotes group enthusiasm to accomplish goals and objectives and focuses on the "big picture." A manager implements plans, allocates resources and people to accomplish goals and objectives, coordinates activities, and tracks progress. Ideally, an individual in a management position is both a good leader and a good manager, but difficulties may occur if an individual in a leadership position is good in one area and not the other, particularly when the individual does not recognize the deficiency(ies). An excellent leader who is unusually successful in motivating employees but has no management interest or skills may experience total program failure unless others accomplish management requirements for the leader. This situation has been the underlying cause of some new companies' failure in spite of superior products and dedicated work forces. Although some leaders may not be effective managers, there is increasing emphasis on the need for managers to also be leaders. Recent management publications such as those by Deming , Covey , Collins , and others stress the need for good leadership if the organization is to be effective.