Effects of residual oil fly ash on pulmonary host defense.
Fly ash: reuse, environmental problems and related issues. Telone, PH, ed., New York: NOVA Science Publishers, 2010 Jul; :1-31
Incidences of high levels of air pollution have been correlated with increased morbidity and mortality in susceptible populations. Inhalation of the combustion-derived pollutant, residual oil fly ash (ROFA), has been shown to impair lung defense mechanisms in laboratory animals and in susceptible populations. ROFA particles are a complex mixture of soluble and insoluble metals, sulfates, acids, and other unknown material complexed to an insoluble carbonaceous core. Bioavailability of the soluble transition metals has been shown to play a key role in lung injury caused by ROFA exposure, and has been implicated in alterations in innate and adaptive pulmonary immune responses. This review examines the effects of ROFA and its constituents on lung responses involved in local host defense, such as inflammation, oxidant production, phagocytic activity, and lymphocyte function in animal models of pulmonary disease. The review is focused primarily on animal studies designed to address inflammatory diseases, such as asthma, allergic sensitization, and alterations in immune responses to infection after exposure to ROFA or its metal constituents. In addition, correlating evidence from epidemiological studies addressing increased incidence of lung disease in populations exposed to high levels of metal-containing pollutants will be addressed.
Fly-ash; Coal-processing; Combustion-products; Coal-mining; Pulmonary-function; Pulmonary-system; Lung-cells; Lung-irritants
Jenny R. Roberts, Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Mail Stop 2015, 1095 Willowdale Road, Morgantown, WV 26505
Fly ash: reuse, environmental problems and related issues