Research on work-related stress has tended to focus on males and to neglect gender as a variable; often, findings from studies of men are incorrectly generalized to women. The failure to "build women in" to conceptual models has impaired our understanding of both work and family role stressors. This article focuses on assumptions, gaps, and biases in the literature; the home, for example, has been viewed as a stress-free sanctuary, whereas workplace stress has been overemphasized and seen as particularly dangerous for women. To better understand the costs and benefits of employment and of multiple roles for women, and the stressfulness of family roles, more attention to the qualitative aspects of roles is needed.
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