Outdoor, indoor, and personal exposure to VOCs in children.
Adgate-JL; Church-TR; Ryan-AD; Ramachandran-G; Fredrickson-AL; Stock-TH; Morandi-MT; Sexton-K
Environ Health Perspect 2004 Oct; 112(14):1386-1392
We measured volatile organic compound (VOC) exposures in multiple locations for a diverse population of children who attended two inner-city schools in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Fifteen common VOCs were measured at four locations: outdoors (O), indoors at school (S), indoors at home (H), and in personal samples (P). Concentrations of most VOCs followed the general pattern O S < P = H across the measured microenvironments. The S and O environments had the smallest and H the largest influence on personal exposure to most compounds. A time-weighted model of P exposure using all measured microenvironments and time-activity data provided little additional explanatory power beyond that provided by using the H measurement alone. Although H and P concentrations of most VOCs measured in this study were similar to or lower than levels measured in recent personal monitoring studies of adults and children in the United States, p-dichlorobenzene was the notable exception to this pattern, with upper-bound exposures more than 100 times greater than those found in other studies of children. Median and upper-bound H and P exposures were well above health benchmarks for several compounds, so outdoor measurements likely underestimate long-term health risks from children's exposure to these compounds.
Age-groups; Airborne-particles; Air-contamination; Biohazards; Biological-effects; Cell-biology; Cellular-reactions; Chemical-deposition; Chemical-hypersensitivity; Chemical-properties; Chemical-reactions; Children; Demographic-characteristics; Exposure-assessment; Exposure-levels; Exposure-methods; Health-hazards; Inhalation-studies; Mathematical-models; Medical-surveys; Organic-chemicals; Particle-aerodynamics; Physiological-effects; Physiological-function; Physiological-measurements; Physiological-response; Pollutants; Quantitative-analysis; Questionnaires; Risk-analysis; Risk-factors; Statistical-analysis; Surface-properties;
Author Keywords: air pollution; elementary school children; ethnicity; health risk; race; SHIELD study
J.L. Adgate, University of Minnesota School of Public Health, Division of Environmental Health Sciences, Room 1260 Mayo, 420 Delaware St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455
Environmental Health Perspectives
University of Minnesota Twin Cities