Permeation of chlorothalonil through nitrile gloves: collection solvent effects in the closed-loop permeation method.
Que Hee-SS; Zainal-H
J Hazard Mater 2010 Jul; 179(1-3):57-62
The aim was to measure the permeation of the fungicide chlorothalonil from Bravo Ultrex through disposable (Safeskin) and chemically protective (Solvex) nitrile glove materials in a closed-loop ASTM type permeation cell system employing different collection side solvents. The permeated fungicide was measured in the collection medium by the internal standard method through capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and selective ion monitoring using m/z 222 (internal standard 4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl), and 224 and 226 (chlorothalonil). The permeated glove materials did not show swelling or shrinkage and infrared reflectance changes. Different permeated masses for the same glove material for aqueous emulsion challenges of 2.2 mg/mL Bravo Ultrex for 8 h were observed for different solvents with isopropanol > hexane > water for Safeskin, and isopropanol = hexane > water for Solvex. Solvex gloves always permeated less than Safeskin gloves for the same challenge time. When challenges with solid Bravo Ultrex occurred, chlorothalonil was still found in the collection side in the same solvent order as for the aqueous emulsion challenges, with Solvex always less than Safeskin for the same collection solvent and same challenge time. Kinetic experiments showed isopropanol was not a suitable collection solvent for Safeskin for 4 and 8 h. Hexane was not a valid collection solvent for Solvex and Safeskin for 8 h, but was better than isopropanol.
Protective-clothing; Protective-materials; Personal-protective-equipment; Gloves; Nitriles; Fungicides; Solvents;
Author Keywords: Chlorothalonil; Nitrile; Fungicide; Permeation; Solvent effect
Shane S. Que Hee, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, and UCLA Center for Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, University of California at Los Angeles, 650 Charles Young Jr Drive South, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1772, USA
Journal of Hazardous Materials
University of California Los Angeles