Identification of Research Needs to Resolve the Carcinogenicity of High-priority IARC Carcinogens. Views and Expert Opinions of an IARC/NORA Expert Group Meeting, Lyon, France, 30 June - 2 July 2009. IARC Technical Publication No. 42. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2010 Jul; 42:214-215
Exposure assessments for epidemiologic studies often require the use of retrospective techniques to make use of historical measurement data to create a job-exposure matrix. To be most successful, this technique relies on the past collection and retention of comprehensive, relevant exposure data. Such data frequently consists of industrial hygiene measurements of air concentrations (either area-wide or in the workers' breathing zone). As mentioned above, cohort-wide collection and analysis of biological samples for exposure biomarkers can be employed to good effect; however, this can be expensive and impractical to conduct. Either technique requires consideration of whether adequate latency exists between the measured exposure and the cancer outcome (frequently, mortality) to permit useful evaluation of risk from the exposure. This limitation may be minimized by using validated biomarkers of early effect in lieu of cancer as an outcome (e.g., as discussed in this paper for indium). Practical limitations such as the inability of researchers to access populations or historical exposure information may hamper the ability to develop quantitative exposure estimates for epidemiologic studies of these Group 2 agents. Employers and government agencies should be encouraged to conduct and make available comprehensive exposure assessments that could be used for current or future epidemiologic studies.
Cancer; Carcinogens; Carcinogenesis; Carcinogenicity; Epidemiology; Exposure-levels; Exposure-limits; Exposure-assessment; Biomarkers
Book or book chapter
Identification of Research Needs to Resolve the Carcinogenicity of High-priority IARC Carcinogens. Views and Expert Opinions of an IARC/NORA Expert Group Meeting, Lyon, France, 30 June - 2 July 2009, IARC Technical Publication No. 42