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Research recommendations for selected IARC-classified agents.
Ward EM; Schulte PA; Straif K; Hopf NB; Caldwell JC; Carreón T; Demarini DM; Fowler BA; Goldstein BD; Hemminki K; Hines CJ; Husgafvel-Pursiainen K; Kuempel E; Lewtas J; Lunn RM; Lynge E; McElvenny DM; Muhle H; Nakajima T; Robertson LW; Rothman N; Ruder AM; Schubauer-Berigan MK; Siemiatycki J; Silverman D; Smith MT; Sorahan T; Steenland K; Stevens RG; Vineis P; Hoar Zahm S; Zeise L; Cogliano VJ
Environ Health Perspect 2010 Oct; 118(10):1355-1362
OBJECTIVES: There are some common occupational agents and exposure circumstances where evidence of carcinogenicity is substantial but not yet conclusive for humans. The objectives are to identify research gaps and needs for twenty agents prioritized for review based on evidence of widespread human exposures and potential carcinogenicity in animals or humans. DATA SOURCES: A systematic review was conducted of new data published since the most recent pertinent IARC monograph meeting. DATA EXTRACTION: Reviewers were charged with identifying data gaps and general and specific approaches to address them, focusing on research that would be important in resolving classification uncertainties. An expert meeting brought reviewers together to discuss each agent and the identified data gaps and approaches. DATA SYNTHESIS: Several overarching issues were identified that pertained to multiple agents; these included the importance of recognizing that carcinogenic agents can act through multiple toxicity pathways and mechanisms, including epigenetic mechanisms, oxidative stress and immuno- and hormonal modulation. CONCLUSIONS: Studies in occupational populations provide important opportunities to understand the mechanisms through which exogenous agents cause cancer and intervene to prevent human exposure and/or prevent or detect cancer among those already exposed. Scientific developments are likely to increase the challenges and complexities of carcinogen testing and evaluation in the future, and epidemiologic studies will be particularly critical to inform carcinogen classification and risk assessment processes.
Animals; Animal-studies; Laboratory-animals; Carcinogens; Carcinogenesis; Carcinogenicity; Epidemiology; Statistical-analysis; Author Keywords: animal; carcinogen; carcinogenesis; epidemiology; human; IARC; mechanisms of carcingenicity; occupational
Elizabeth M. Ward PhD., Epidemiology and Surveillance Research, American Cancer Society, 250 Williams Street, Atlanta, GA 30303-1002, USA
Issue of Publication
Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing; Manufacturing
Environmental Health Perspectives
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Page last reviewed: July 16, 2021
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division