Coal workers' pneumoconiosis and other coal-related lung disease.
Textbook of clinical occupational and environmental medicine. Rosenstock L, Cullen MR, eds. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Company, 1994 Jul; :274-287
The growth in coal mining is virtually coincident with the Industrial Revolution. Although shallow mining of coal seam outcrops is reported to have occurred since the 9th century, the 18th century brought increased demand for coal, as well as the technology to pursue the mining of seams well below the earth's surface. By the early 1800s, coal mining had become an important industry in the United States. Employment in coal mining peaked about 100 years later in 1923, when over 800,000 coal miners were working. From that point, although production and consumption of coal continued to increase, mechanization progressively reduced the size of the workforce. In 1990, a total of 126,642 coal miners were at work in the United States, of whom almost half were employed on surface operations. The principal coal deposits in the United States are shown in Figure 37. The majority of coal production is still based in the eastern Appalachian coal fields. However, western states account for an increasing proportion of coal output.
Mining-industry; Coal-mining; Coal-workers-pneumoconiosis; Pneumoconiosis; Underground-miners; Underground-mining; Coal-miners; Respiratory-system-disorders; Pulmonary-system-disorders; Lung-disorders; Black-lung
Textbook of clinical occupational and environmental medicine